Identification of the burning process of ancient ceramics

Flint red is the most burning pad traces. In the old days when there was no match, people took fire and used fireballs to strike the flint and use the resulting sparks to light the fire. Flint is a type of quartzite with an iron-red hull. The surface of ancient porcelain exposed tires often forms a similar halo, so people vividly called it flint erythema.

I do not know when to start, flint erythema has become a major criterion for identification of blue and white flowers, but now the raw materials and firing methods have changed with the Yuan Dynasty. First of all, the "Mafang soil" used for porcelain burning in the Yuan Dynasty has dried up, and the iron content in contemporary china is generally low. Second, now we don't need to make padding with old soil, nor will we use wet cakes to pad the porcelain blanks. Instead, we use a simpler method to replace the pad cakes with oxidized or quartz sand. This kind of material is difficult for the ancients to acquire, but it is easy for those who master modern processing machinery. In response to market demand, the counterfeiters in Jingdezhen began to wonder how to burn fakes with erythematous flint. In spite of this, there are still significant differences between imitation products and genuine products. Imitation products are only superficial, authentic products are naturally formed from the inside out, in addition to color differences, the color distribution also has rules to follow.

Picking mud patterns is a unique phenomenon in the firing of enamel kiln. Many articles have mentioned it. For a long time in the past, people did not know how to form muddy patterns and saw it as mysterious. They even thought that people today cannot imitate and are used as a standard to identify true and false kilns. Afterwards, they were sacred by some people, and they were widely promoted. They believed that all ancient kiln artifacts had muddy patterns and none of them were imitations. Unknown muddy patterns only appeared on the so-called bureaucrats in the Yao Temple in Hezhou, Henan Province. In addition, there was no muddy pattern in the Yuan Dynasty including the Yuan Kiln. On the contrary, modern Imitations on the mud go away more than ancient authentic products.

The key to the formation of muddy patterns is plain burning. As far as enamels are concerned, ancient products, except for Baguadong products, were burned, and the rest of the products were green glazed and fired once. Green glaze requires craftsmen to master superb glazing skills. The first is to be agile and not dragging water, otherwise the slab will collapse due to excessive water absorption. Second, the green body must maintain a certain humidity before glazing, too wet and dry will not work, too wet will reduce the water absorption rate of the body, make the body deform or the glaze layer is too thin, overdry will cause the body to meet the water and produce weathering burst . To know that the kiln is a thick enamel product, the glaze is prone to cracking during the drying process, especially if it is burned. If the enamel is too thin or too thick, it will not work. The resulting one.

Glazing on sinter-fired pottery is prone to cracking. In order to keep the glaze intact, craftsmen brush the glaze with a brush and dip water before entering the kiln to re-cure the cracked glaze. The brush marks on the glazed porcelain of the official residence of the Imperial Palace (Weibo) Museum are like this. The cracks on the glazed surface are only temporarily invisible after brushing. After entering the kiln, the cracks will reappear as the temperature rises. When the kiln temperature reaches 1100°C, the glazed surface begins to melt and crack. Heal again. If it is a kind of transparent glaze or translucent glaze product of Longquan Kiln, the healing crack will disappear without trace. The kiln is an opaque glaze with a color difference between the cracking site and the glaze. People call it muddy.

In the eyes of the contemporary people, muddy walking is originally a glaze, but in the eyes of ancient literati, it is an advantage and feature. It belongs to a natural kiln-changing phenomenon, which can bring people unlimited imagination and turn it into a magical glaze. Instead, it has become a rare point of appreciation. This shows that compared with modern people, the ancients knew more about the true meaning of ceramic art. They did not regard artificial decoration as the highest realm of ceramic art, but instead used the kiln-changing phenomenon that cannot be reached by humans as the highest standard that ceramic art should pursue. Since the Yuan Dynasty, people began to raise the art of ceramic painting to an unprecedented level. The three dynasties of Kang, Yi, and Qiang reached the peak in the Qing Dynasty. Painted porcelain was not put down by Westerners who did not understand the true meaning of ceramic art. In turn, it always dominated the development direction of ceramic art in modern China. The appearance of shallow enamel porcelain in the late Qing Dynasty finally brought this art into a blind alley, forcing it to merge with the art of painting and calligraphy.

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